Martin Banks, PhD

Professor of Optometry and Vision Science

School of Optometry

Research Area
Biomedical Optics; Computational Vision; Neuroscience & Neurobiology; Perception and Visual Cognition

506 Minor Addition
Berkeley, CA . 94720


(510) 642-9341



Affiliate Professor of Psychology and Bioengineering


Vision Science 218. Binocular Vision and Space Perception


Perception of space, direction, and distance; binocular retinal correspondence, horopters, differential magnification effects, and anomalies of binocular vision development; sensory vision, local stereopsis, static and dynamic stereopsis, binocular depth cues.

Vision A (C290A): Quantitative, Perceptual, and Physiological Aspects


Basic material on the retina and visual pathways, psychophysical measurements, visual sensitivity, color vision, and the estimation of disparity and motion; introduction to front-end visual processing in mammalian visual system; basic optics, anatomy, and phsyiology of retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and primary visual cortex; psychophysics of color, light, and dark adaptation, spatial contrast sensitivity, spatial resolution, spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity, motion, and disparity measurement; connections between psychophysics and physiology; relevant modeling techniques, such as linear systems, signal detection theory, and information theory will be introduced and applied; accompanying laboratory.

Vision B (C290B): Quantitative, Perceptual, and Physiological Aspects

Contributing Instructor

Basic material on inferring 3D from visual information, including disparity, motion, texture, shading, and occlusion; introduction to the psychophysics, physiology, and mathematical analysis underlying the inference of 3D scene properties from 2D retinal images; psychophysics of various cues to 3D shape and spatial layout, such as texture, contour, shading, stereopsis, and structure from motion; geometrical analysis of these cues; probabilistic theory for optimal combination of cues and estimation of scene properties; relevant physiology of V1, V2, V4, and higher areas; accompanying laboratory.

Research Interests

Visual space perception and sensory combination

My research involves three topics: (1) the use of motion and stereoscopic information to determine the spatial layout of the visible environment and one’s motion through that environment, (2) the combination of information from more than one sense modality (e.g., vision and touch), (3) the construction and evaluation of devices for creating useful virtual environments (e.g., vision, vestibular, and touch). In all cases, we are particularly interested in determining how efficiently human observers utilize the available stimulus information while performing perceptual tasks and also in applying the results to emerging technologies such as virtual reality.

Selected Publications

Banks, M.S., Kim, J., & Shibata, T. (2013). Insight into vergence-accommodation mismatch. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8735, 873509P1- 873509P-12. [PDF]

Vangorp, P., Richardt, C., Cooper, E.A., Chaurasia, G., Banks, M.S., Drettakis, G. (2013) Perception of perspective distortions in image-based rendering. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 32, 4, 58:1-12. [PDF]

Kim, J. , Johnson, P.V., Banks, M.S., (2013) Depth distortion in color-interlaced stereoscopic 3d displays. Proceedings of the SPIE: Stereoscopic Displays & Applications, 8648, 84480N1-N7. [PDF]

Banks, M.S., Read, J.C.A., Allison, R.S., and Watt, S.J. (2012) Stereoscopy and the human visual system. SMPTE Mot. Imag. J., 121 (4), 24-43. [PDF]

Cooper, E.A., Piazza, E.A. and Banks, M.S. (2012) The perceptual basis of common photographic practice. Journal of Vision, 12(5):8, 1-14. [PDF]

Held, R.T., Cooper, E.A., Banks, M.S. (2012) Blur and disparity are complementary cues to depth. Current Biology, 22, 1-6. [PDF]

Kim, J., Kane, D., & Banks, M.S. (2012). Visual discomfort and the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8288, 828811P1-828811P9. [PDF]

Kane, D., Held, R.T., & Banks, M.S. (2012). Visual discomfort with stereo 3d displays when the head is not upright. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8288, 828814P1-828814P10. [PDF]

Vlaskamp, B.N.S., Yoon, G., Banks, M.S., (2011) Human stereopsis is not limited by the optics of the well-focused eye. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(27), 9814-9818. [PDF]

Ravikumar, S., Akeley, K., Banks, M.S. (2011) Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3d displays. Optics Express, 19 (21), 20940-20952. [PDF]

Shibata, T., Kim, J., Hoffman, D.M. & Banks, M.S. (2011). Visual discomfort with stereo displays: effects of viewing distance and direction of vergence-accommodation conflict. Proceedings of the SPIE: Stereoscopic Displays & Applications, 7863, 1-9. [PDF]

Shibata, T., Kim, J., Hoffman, D.M. & Banks, M.S. (2011). The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays. Journal of Vision, 11(8):11, 1-29. [PDF]

Cooper, E.A., Burge, J. & Banks, M.S. (2011). The vertical horopter is not adaptable, but it may be adaptive. Journal of Vision, 11(3):20, 1-19. [PDF]

Hoffman, D.M., Karasev, V.I. & Banks, M.S. (2011). Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth. Journal of the SID, 19/3, 255-281. [PDF]

Hoffman, D.M. & Banks, M.S. (2010). Focus information is used to interpret binocular images. Journal of Vision, 10(5):13,1–17. [PDF]

O’Shea, J.P., Agrawala, M., & Banks, M.S. (2010). The influence of shape cues on the perception of lighting direction. Journal of Vision, 10(12):21, 1-20. [PDF]

MacNeilage, P.R., Banks, M.S., DeAngelis, G.C., & Angelaki, D.E. (2010). Vestibular heading discrimination and sensitivity to linear acceleration in head and world coordinates. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 9084-9094. [PDF]

Burge, J., Girshick, A.R., & Banks, M.S. (2010). Visual–haptic adaptation is determined by relative reliability. Journal of Neuroscience, 30: 7214-7721. [PDF]

Burge, J., Fowlkes, C.C., & Banks, M.S. (2010). Natural-scene statistics predict how the figure–ground cue of convexity affects human depth perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 30: 7269-7280. [PDF]

Held, R.T., Cooper, E., O’Brien, J., & Banks, M.S. (2010). Using blur to affect perceived distance and size. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 29, 2, 19. [PDF]

Love, G.D., Hoffman, D.M., Hands, P.J.W., Gao, J., Kirby, A.K., & Banks, M.S. (2009). High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display. Optics Express, 17, 15716-15725. [PDF]

Girshick, A.R. & Banks, M.S. (2009). Probabilistic combination of slant information: weighted averaging and robustness as optimal percepts. Journal of Vision, 9(9):8, 1-20. [PDF]

Burr, D., Banks, M.S., & Morrone, C.M. (2009). Auditory dominance over vision in the perception of interval duration. Experimental Brain Research, published on-line 7/14/09. [PDF]

Burr, D., Silva, O., Cicchini, G.M., Banks, M.S., & Morrone, M.C. (2009). Temporal mechanisms of multimodal binding. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 276, 1761-1769. [PDF]

Hoffman, D.L., Hands, P.J.W., Kirby, A.K., Love, G.D., & Banks, M.S. (2009). Stereo display with time-multiplexed focal adjustment. Proceedings of the SPIE: Stereoscopic Displays & Applications, 7237, 1-12. [PDF]

Banks, M.S., Held, R.T., & Girshick, A.R. (2009). Perception of 3-D layout in stereo displays. Information Display, 25(1), 12-16. [PDF]

Vlaskamp, B, Filippini, H.R., & Banks, M.S. (2009). Image-size differences worsen stereopsis independent of eye position. Journal of Vision, 9(2):17, 1-13. [PDF]

Filippini, H.R. & Banks, M.S. (2009). Limits of stereopsis explained by local cross-correlation. Journal of Vision, 9(1):8, 1-18. [PDF]

Banks, M.S., Akeley, K., Hoffman, D.M., & Girshick, A.R. (2008). Consequences of incorrect focus cues in stereo displays. Information Display, 24(7), 10-14. [PDF]

O’Shea, J.P., Banks, M.S., & Agrawala, M. (2008). The assumed light direction for perceiving shape from shading. ACM Transactions on Graphics, APGV08, 135-142. [PDF]

Held, R.T. & Banks, M.S. (2008). Misperceptions in stereoscopic displays: A Vision Science perspective. ACM Transactions on Graphics, APGV08, 23-31. [PDF]

Hoffman, D. M., Girshick, A. R., Akeley, K., & Banks, M. S. (2008). Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue. Journal of Vision, 8(3):33, 1-30. [PDF]

Hernandez, T.D., Levitan, C.A., Banks, M.S., & Schor, C.M. (2008). How does saccadic adaptation affect visual perception? Journal of Vision, 8(8):3, 1-16. [PDF]

Burge, J., Ernst, M. O., & Banks, M. S. (2008). The statistical determinants of adaptation rate in human reaching. Journal of Vision, 8(4):20, 1-19. [PDF]

Schreiber, K. M., Hillis, J. M., Filippini, H. R., Schor, C. M., & Banks, M. S. (2008). The surface of the empirical horopter. Journal of Vision, 8(3):7, 1-20. [PDF]

MacNeilage, P.R., Banks, M.S., Berger, D.R. & Bulthoff, H.H. (2007). A Bayesian model of the disambiguation of gravitoinertial force by visual cues. Experimental Brain Research, 179(2), 263-290. [PDF]

Gepshtein, S., Burge, J., Ernst, M. O., & Banks, M. S. (2005). The combination of vision and touch depends on spatial proximity. Journal of Vision, 5(11), 1013-1023. [PDF]

Watt, S.J., Akeley, K., Ernst, M.O. and Banks, M.S. (2005) Focus cues affect perceived depth. Journal of Vision, 5, 834-862. [PDF]

Vishwanath, D., Girshick, A.R. and Banks, M.S. (2005) Why pictures look right when viewed from the wrong place. Nature Neuroscience, 8(10), 1401-1410. [PDF]

Trommershauser, J., Gepshtein, S., Maloney, L.T., Landy, M.S. and Banks, M.S. (2005) Optimal Compensation for changes in Task-Relevant Movement Variability. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 7169-7178. [PDF]

Burge, J., Peterson, M. A., & Palmer, S. E. (2005). Ordinal configural cues combine with metric disparity in depth perception. Journal of Vision, 5(6), 534-542.[PDF]

Watt, S.J., Akeley, K., Girshick, A.R. & Banks, M.S. (2005) Achieving near-correct focus cues in a 3-D display using multiple image planes. Proceedings of SPIE: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, (IS&T/SPIE Paper Number 5666-53). [PDF]

Banks, M. S., Rose, H. F., Vishwanath, D. & Girshick, A.R. (2005). Where should you sit to watch a movie? Proceedings of SPIE: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, (IS&T/SPIE Paper Number 5666-34). [PDF]

Banks, M. S., Gepshtein, S. & Rose, H. F. (2005) Local cross-correlation model of stereo correspondence. Proceedings of SPIE: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, (IS&T/SPIE Paper Number 5666-9). [PDF]

Akeley, K., Watt, S. J., Girshick, A. R., & Banks, M. S. (2004) A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 23, I804-813. [PDF]

Banks, M.S. (2004) What you see and hear is what you get. Current Biology, 14, R236-R238. [PDF]

Banks, M.S., Gepshtein, S. & Landy, M.S. (2004) Why is spatial stereoresolution so low? Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 2077-2089. [PDF]

Hillis, J.M., Watt, S.J., Landy, M.S. & Banks, M.S. (2004) Slant from texture and disparity cues: optimal cue combination. Journal of Vision, 4, 967-992. [PDF]

Banks, M.S., Ghose, T. & Hillis, J.M. (2004) Relative image size, not eye position, determines eye dominance switches. Vision Research, 44, 3, 229-234. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

Stone, L.S., Miles, F.A. & Banks, M.S. (2003) Linking eye movements and perception. Journal of Vision, 3, 11, i-iii. [PDF]

Gepshtein, S. & Banks, M.S. (2003) Viewing geometry determines how vision and haptics combine in size perception. Current Biology, 13, 6, 483-488. [PDF]

Hillis, J.M., Ernst, M.O., Banks, M.S. & Landy, M.S. (2002) Combining Sensory Information: Mandatory Fusion Within, but Not Between Senses. Science, 298, 1627-1630. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

Ernst, M.O. & Banks, M.S. (2002) Humans integrate visual and haptic information in a statistically optimal fashion. Nature, 415, 429-433.

Banks, M.S., Backus, B.T., & Banks, R.S. (2002) Is vertical disparity used to determine azimuth? Vision Research, 42, 801-807. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

Adams, W.J., Banks, M.S., & van Ee, R. (2001) Adaptation to 3D distortions in human vision. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 1, 1063-1064. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

Banks, M.S., Hooge, I.T.C., & Backus, B.T. (2001) Perceiving slant about a horizontal axis from stereopsis. Journal of Vision, 1, 2, 55-78. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

Hillis, J.M. & Banks, M.S. (2001) Are corresponding points fixed? Vision Research, 41, 2457-2473. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

James, F.M.K., Whitehead, S., Humphrey, G.K., Banks, M.S., & Vilis, T. (2001) Eye position sense contributes to the judgement of slant. Vision Research, 41, 3447-3454. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

Domini, F., Adams, W., & Banks, M.S. (2001) 3D aftereffects are due to shape and not disparity adaptation. Vision Research, 41, 2733-2739. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

Ernst, M.O., Banks, M.S., Bulthoff, H.H. (2000) Touch can change visual slant perception. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 1, 69-73. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

Backus, B.T. & Banks, M.S. (1999) Estimator reliability and distance scaling in stereoscopic slant perception. Perception, 28, 217-242. [PDF]

van Ee, R., Banks, M.S., Backus, B.T. (1999) An analysis of binocular slant contrast. Perception, 28, 1121-1145. [PDF]

Backus, B.T., Banks, M.S., van Ee, R., Crowell, J.A. (1999) Horizontal and vertical disparity, eye position, and stereoscopic slant perception. Vision Research, 39, 1143-1170. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

van Ee, R., Banks, M.S., Backus, B.T. (1999) Perceived visual direction near an occluder. Vision Research, 39, 4085-4097. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

Banks, M.S. & Backus, B.T. (1998) Extra-retinal and perspective cues cause the small range of the induced effect. Vision Research, 38, 187-194. [ABSTRACT] [PDF]

Banks, M.S., van Ee, R., & Backus, B.T. (1997) The computation of binocular visual direction, A re-examination of Mansfield and Legge (1997). Vision Research, 37, 1605-1610. [PDF]

Green, D.G., Powers, M.K. and Banks, M.S. (1980) Depth of focus, eye size and visual acuity. Vision Research, 20, 827-835.