Professor Emeritus Optometry and Vision Science
School of Optometry
Dean Emeritus, School of Optometry, 1980-1992
Effects on vision resulting from anomalies of photo-receptor orientation
I have demonstrated that there were effects on vision resulting from anomalies of photo-receptor orientation through measurements of the Stiles-Crawford Effect (directional sensitivity of the retina) in a number of disorders and diseases. I also first demonstrated that vertebrate photo-receptors are waveguides and defined their properties in several species. Most recently, a trans-retinal tractional effect has been studied, as well as the sources of these meaningful traction effects both experimentally and through use of special models.
Techniques for optimizing vision in eyes of patients with “front of the eye” low vision problems
I have developed techniques to correct the vision in neonates and premature infants born with a variety of anterior eye congenital anomalies [cataract (various), aniridia, nystagmus, buphthalmos (an infantile form of glaucoma), persistent hyperplastic vitreous, correcting infant eyes with corneal transplants, etc.]. Through this work (conducted with pediatric ophthalmic surgeons), I sought to overcome early developmental forms of amblyopia, strabismus, and aniseikonia (unequal image sizes in the two eyes).
Development of perimetric methods for testing visual fields
I have investigated the effects of image blur upon perimetric measurements, developed a perimetry of neuropsychiatric disorders (apparently affected by anomalies of neurotransmitter substances/therapeutic interventions affecting the neurotransmitters), led development of perimetric and visual field standards, and defined “layer-by-layer quantitative perimetric techniques.” The latter techniques utilized our growing understanding of nerve transmission in the visual system, and allowed diagnostic localization of individual diseases to specific loci in the retina. This was demonstrated, in part, by studying (early stage) exacerbations and remissions of applicable disease processes.
Over-rides of retina and choroid onto the disc in some advanced myopias
Through the use of perimetric techniques, I have revealed function on top of the optic nerve head in these patients.
Applying measurements of hyperacuity (Vernier acuity, doubling measurements, bisection tasks, Vernier fields) to clinical practice
Using Vernier acuity methods, I have been the first to successfully define a technique for assessing visual capabilities through the densest ocular media opacities (leucomas of the corneas, mature cataracts, bleeds in the eyes). This is most valuable in helping surgeons assess post-surgical prognoses prior to ophthalmic surgery, and as a means of triage, particularly in the developing world where ophthalmic service resources remain incapable of meeting patient demands for eye care. I have also been one of a small number of scientists working in this area who has demonstrated that certain Vernier acuity test designs are not affected by age.