Center for Eye Disease and Development
NEI Summer Research Training Program
Director, Oxyopia Seminars
Optometry 226. Systemic Disease
Pathophysiology, pharmacotherapy, and clinical management of systemic and ocular diseases through a combination of lecture and problem-based learning approaches; disease processes emphasized, including cellular injury and repair, inflammation, infection, degeneration, and neoplasia; neurologic, cardiovascular, endocrine, pulmonary, and congenital disease and their relative ocular manifestations; basic principles of pharmacology and overviews of drugs used to treat diseases of each system; the role of the optometrist in the health care system.
Optometry 236. Ocular Manifestations of Systemic Disease
Pathophysiology, pharmacotherapy, and clinical management of systemic and ocular disease through a combination of lecture and problem-based learning approaches; disease processes emphasized, including cellular injury and repair, inflammation, infection, degeneration, and neoplasia; neurologic, cardiovascular, endocrine, pulmonary, and congenital disease and their relative ocular manifestations; basic principles of pharmacology and overviews of drugs used to treat diseases of each system; the role of the optometrist in the health care system.
Vision Science 298
Group Studies, Seminars, or Group Research
Eye growth regulation, refractive development and myopia (short-sightedness) – application of molecular & neurobiology, advanced imaging, and tissue engineering tools towards understanding mechanisms & developing novel therapies
My research interests are mainly centered around refractive development and myopia (short-sightedness), although my interests extend beyond this to include intraocular pressure regulation and glaucoma therapy, and ocular public health issues. I have on-going collaborations, both within and outside the USA, both in myopia research and outside it. The etiology of human myopia is poorly understood; while genetic factors once were considered the main determinant, the current epidemic of myopia in some populations (near 90% in some Asian university student populations!), suggests that the picture is far more complex. Visual experience appears to be an important factor, with near work being apparently provocative although not everyone appears equally susceptible. There are currently as many unanswered questions and answered ones in terms of what aspects of the visual experience are important, the nature of myopia growth signals, and how eyes enlarge. As an ocular condition, myopia is very common and has significant ramifications in terms of health costs, be it in relation to its management with spectacles, contact lens or refractive surgical correction, or the treatment of associated complications, high myopia being a leading cause of blindness. My recent work has been mainly animal-based, using the chick as an animal model for myopia although there are many questions ripe for answering in human myopia research as well. This field of research is both exciting and fast moving.
Hammond DS. Wallman J, Wildsoet CF (2013). Dynamics of active emmetropization in young chicks – Influence of sign and magnitude of imposed defocus. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt Doi: 10.1111/opo.12056.
Aller T, Wildsoet CF (2013). Clinical perspective: Optical control of myopia has come of age – or has it? Optom Vis Sci 90(5): e135-7; doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e31828b47cf.
Zhang Y, Liu Y, Ho C, Wildsoet CF (2013). Effects of imposed defocus of opposite sign on temporal gene expression patterns of BMP4 and BMP7 in chick RPE. Exp Eye Res 109:98-106.
Zhang Y, Liu Y, Wildsoet CF (2012). Bidirectional, optical sign-dependent regulation of BMP2 gene expression in chick retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53: 6072-80.
Liu Y, Wildsoet CF (2012). The effective add inherent in 2-zone negative lenses inhibits eye growth in myopic young chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53: 5085-93.
Hammond DS, Wildsoet CF (2012). Compensation to positive as well as negative lenses can occur in chicks reared in bright UV lighting. Vision Res 67: 44-50.
Liu Y, Wildsoet CF (2011). The effect of two-zone concentric bifocal spectacle lenses on refractive error development and eye growth in young chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 52:1078-86.
Ostrin LA, Liu Y, Choh V, Wildsoet CF (2011). The role of the iris in chick accommodation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 52: 4710-6.
Tian Y, Tarrant J, Wildsoet CF (2011). Optical and biometric characteristics of anisomyopia in human adults. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 31: 540-549.
Su J, Wall ST, Healy KE, Wildsoet CF (2010). Scleral reinforcement through host tissue integration with biomimetic enzymatically-degradable semi-interpenetrating polymer network. Tissue Eng Part A. 16: 905-16.
Tarrant J, Roorda A, Wildsoet CF (2010). Determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations. J Vis May 1; 10. Pil:10.5.4. doi: 10.1167/10.5.4.
Ganesan P, Wildsoet CF (2010). Pharmaceutical intervention for myopia control. Expert Review Ophthalmol 5: 759-87.
Su J, Iomdina E, Tarutta E, Ward B, Song J, Wildsoet CF (2009). Effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) hydrogel implants on myopic and normal chick sclera. Exp Eye Res. 88: 445-57.
Ai L, Li J, Guan H, Wildsoet CF (2009). Emmetropization and eye growth in young aphakic chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50: 295-304.
Choh V, Padmanabhan V, Wing S, Li J, Wildsoet CF (2008). Effect of colchicine on emmetropization in young chicks. Exp Eye Res 86: 260-70.
Tran N, Chiu S, Tian Y, Wildsoet CF (2008). The significance of retinal image contrast and spatial frequency composition for eye growth modulation in young chicks Vision Res, 48: 1655-62.
Padmanabhan V, Shih, J, Wildsoet CF (2008). Patching fellow eyes during subjective night does not prevent disruption to minus lens compensation in constant light-reared chicks. Vision Res 48: 1992-8.
Tarrant J, Severson H, Wildsoet CF (2008). Accommodation in emmetropic and myopic young adults wearing bifocal soft contact lenses. Ophthal Physiol Opt 28: 62-72.
Aller TA, Wildsoet CF (2007). Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: A case report involving identical twins. Clin Exp Optom 91: 394-9.
Padmanabhan V, Shih J, Wildsoet CF (2007). Constant light rearing disrupts compensation to imposed- but not induced-hyperopia and facilitates compensation to imposed myopia in chicks. Vision Res 47: 1855-1868.
Tian Y, Wildsoet CF (2006). Diurnal fluctuations and developmental changes in ocular dimensions and optical aberrations in young chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 47: 4168-78.
Rymer J, Wildsoet CF (2005). The role of the retinal pigment epithelium in eye growth regulation and myopia: A review. Visual Neurosci 22: 251-261.
Wildsoet CF (2003). Neural pathways subserving negative lens-induced emmetropization in chicks – Insights from selective lesioning of the optic nerve and/or ciliary nerve. Curr Eye Res 27: 371-385.
Diether S, Wildsoet CF (2005). Stimulus requirements for the decoding of myopic and hyperopic defocus under single and competing defocus conditions in the chicken. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46: 2242-52.
Fitzgerald MEC, Wildsoet CF, Reiner A (2002). Temporal relationship of choroidal blood flow and thickness changes during recovery from form deprivation myopia in chicks. Exp Eye Res 74: 561-70.
Nickla DL, Wildsoet CF, Troilo D (2001). Endogenous rhythms in axial length and choroidal thickness in chicks: implications for ocular growth regulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 42: 584-588.
Schmid KL, Abbott M, Humphries M, Pyne K, Wildsoet CF (2000). Timolol lowers intraocular pressure but does not inhibit the development of experimental myopia in chick. Exp Eye Res 70: 659-666.
Flitcroft DI, Troilo D, Wildsoet CF (2000). A new perspective in the pharmacological treatment of myopia. Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia (F Thorn, D Troilo, J Gwiazda eds), Boston, pp 195-199.
Troilo D, Nickla DL, Wildsoet CF (2000). Choroidal thickness changes during altered eye growth and refractive state in a primate. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41: 1249-1258.
Nickla DL, Wallman J, Wildsoet CF (1998). Visual influences on diurnal rhythms in ocular length and choroidal thickness in chick eyes. Exp Eye Res 66; 163-181
Schmid K, Wildsoet CF (1996). Breed- and gender-dependent differences in eye growth and form deprivation responses in chicks. J Comp Physiol A 178: 551-561.
Wildsoet CF, Wallman, J (1995). Choroidal and scleral mechanisms of compensation for spectacle lenses in chicks. Vision Res 35: 1175-1194.